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Understanding Breeding Terms

Confirmed Bred

  • The cows and heifers we list as "confirmed bred” are only done so when a Veterinarian or Reproductive Technician has performed a “Pregnancy Check”. This is done via Ultrasound, palpitation or blood draw (confirmed by a lab test).

  • Cows and heifers are driven by an evolutionary instinct; prioritize the mother's survival. Because of this, cows and heifers can be confirmed pregnant and at any stage of that pregnancy naturally terminate or abort their own pregnancy. At 1860 Farms, we diligently try to mitigate this risk, showcasing our devotion to our cows and maintaining a stellar reputation for producing healthy calves.

  • At 1860 Farms, we want our customers to understand that all cattle naturally have this instinct. According to Merck Animal Health, a normal termination rate can be up to 5% annually. With our commitment to having healthy cows in order to have healthy births, most years we achieve a remarkable zero abortion rate.


  • After Artificial Insemination of cows and heifers we “turn in” the “cleanup bull” and the herd is then “exposed” to our herd bull. This is an additional breeding service provided as a back-up, in case the Artificial Insemination did not take, or the cow/heifer terminates the embryo in the early stages of pregnancy. 

  • Many of our cows and or heifers are bred through natural services by one of our herd bulls and are exposed for a set time to create a calving period.

Calving Period:

  • This estimates the birthing window for cows and/or heifers, determined by the breeding period. Confirmation of pregnancy through ultrasound or palpitation exams guides our veterinarian in estimating the calving period. This estimation considers exam results, AI timing, and exposure duration to the clean-up bull.

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